A.I, Data and Software Engineering

Advanced python part 2


In part 1, we introduced advanced string, bytes manipulation in Python. This article covers some advanced python knowledge with built-in functions and other useful tools for sequence iteration, data transformation.

Useful built-in functions

  • Use any() to return true if any of the sequence values are true
  • Use all() to return true only if all values are true
  • Quickly find the minimum/maximum value in a sequence by using min() and max()


There are several methods to loop through elements in a sequence.

  • Use iter() to create an iterator over collection
  • Use enumerate() reduces code and provides a counter (index)

We now can run the example using the file created.

Use enumerator with zip to loop through combined sequences.


We are demonstrating a couple of infinite iterators, and these are iterators that will generate values for as long as you need them and they just never end. First is called cycle, and it does what its name implies, it cycles over a set of values. 

The next infinite iterator we’re going to create is called a count iterator. It creates a counter which defaults to zero. I can also give it a step value, which defaults to one but I’ll make it 10.

It is also useful to use itertools to accumulates value.  Now it defaults to addition:

I can change the default addition function with the built-in max function. It will then replace all values from the index of the maximum value to the max value.

There are also many useful tools from itertools package to handle files. For example to read a file as chunks of lines. To achieve that, the islice() method from the itertools module comes into play. Also, it works as an iterator, and returns a chunk of data that consists of n lines. At the end of the file, the result might be shorter, and finally the call will return an empty list.

You may be interested in the advanced python method to find object size.

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